- Making the most energy dense battery from the palette of the periodic table
- Hydrogen, the Homeopathic energy crisis remedy
- Diesel is finite. Trucks are the bedrock of civilization. So where are the battery electric trucks?
- Just 16,000 catenary trucks would use 1% of California’s electricity generation, all vehicles 2.5 times more power than available
- Who Killed the Electric Car and more importantly, the Electric Truck?
- All Electric Trucks. Probably not going to happen. Ever. Why not?
- Hybrid electric trucks are very different from HEV cars
- Electric truck range is less in cold weather
- Utility scale energy storage batteries limited by materials and few locations for pumped hydro, compressed air
- Roger Andrews: California public utilities vote no on energy storage
- Electric Grid Energy Storage
- Would Tesla, li-ion batteries, SolarCity or SpaceX exist without $4.9 billion in government subsidies?
- Electric vehicle overview
- What is the life span of a vehicle Lithium-ion Battery?
- EPA LCA study lithium-ion battery environmental impact, energy used, recycling issues
- Bloomberg News: Tesla’s new battery doesn’t work that well with solar
- Renewable Energy can’t supply more than 30% of electricity without revolutionary battery breakthrough
- Revolutionary understanding of physics needed to improve batteries – don’t hold your breath
- American Physical Society: has the Battery Bubble Burst?
- Batteries are made of rare, declining, and imported minerals
- Battery energy density too low to power cars
- Notes from “The Powerhouse: Inside the Invention of a Battery to Save the World” by Steve LeVine
- Why aren’t there Battery Powered Airplanes?
- Given the laws of physics, can the Tesla Semi really go 500 miles, and what will the price be?
Alice Friedemann www.energyskeptic.com author of “When Trucks Stop Running: Energy and the Future of Transportation”, 2015, Springer, Barriers to Making Algal Biofuels, and “Crunch! Whole Grain Artisan Chips and Crackers”. Podcasts: Derrick Jensen, Practical Prepping, KunstlerCast 253, KunstlerCast278, Peak Prosperity , XX2 report
Introduction to battery electric trucks
Heavy-duty diesel-engine trucks (agricultural, mining, logging, construction, garbage, cement, 18-wheelers) are the main engines of civilization. Without them, no goods would be delivered, no food planted or harvested, no garbage picked up, no minerals mined, no concrete made, oil and gas drilled, and roads built to keep them all rolling. If trucks stopped running, gas stations, grocery stores, factories, pharmacies, and manufacturers would shut down within a week.
Since oil, coal, and natural gas are finite, biomass doesn’t scale up, and hydrogen is an energy sink, clearly someday trucks will need to run on wind, solar, hydro, and geothermal generated electricity with batteries or overhead catenary wires. Yet even batteries for autos aren’t cheap, long-lasting, light-weight, or powerful enough for most Americans to replace their current gas-guzzlers with. And given the distribution of wealth, few Americans may ever be able to afford an electric car, since two-thirds of Americans would have trouble finding even $1,000 for an emergency.
Trucks that matter — that haul 30 tons of goods, pour cement, haul mining ore — can weigh 40 times more than an average car. So scaling batteries up for heavy-duty trucks (NRC 2014) is impossible now given the state of battery technology. For example, a truck capable of going 621 miles hauling 59,525 pounds, the maximum allowable cargo weight, would need a battery weighing 55,116 pounds, and so could only carry about 4,400 pounds of cargo (den Boer et al. 2013). And because a heavy-duty truck battery is so heavy and large, charging takes too long — typically 12 hours or more.
Or as Ryan Carlyle, oil company engineer puts it: “As far as heavy trucking is concerned, there is no replacement for hydrocarbon fuels. The physics of power/weight ratios, and existence of legal road weight limits, means you simply can’t build an “electric semi” and expect it to haul anything comparable to what diesel trucks haul today. This is not an area where Tesla can build a 30% better battery pack and suddenly it’s feasible. The necessary energy density numbers are more like 50 times less than they need to be. The truck will use over half its payload capacity just carrying its own batteries, which is all but unworkable as a freight haulage system. There are chemical limits to what batteries can do. We haven’t reached the limits yet, but we will someday. Electrochemical galvanic cells physically cannot store enough energy — ever — to approach today’s large diesel engines (Carlyle 2014).
And car battery development is hitting the brick-walls of the laws of physics and thermodynamics, yet truck batteries need to be even more powerful, durable, and long-lasting.
There are not any commercially available heavy-duty Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) outside the transit bus segment at this time. It is not expected that BEVs can penetrate into the long-haul trucking vocation in the next several decades, where significant high speed steady-state operations dominate the vehicles duty cycle, without significant advances in battery energy density and BEV recharging technologies. (ARB 2015).
There are however, demonstration projects with class 8 electric trucks. The first, NFI, has two trucks running between Chino and the Ports of Los Angeles/San Pedro 135 miles round-trip using two of the five heavy-duty charging stations in Southern California. Only one round-trip can be made, there isn’t enough juice left in the battery to go again. The second, Penske is averaging 150 miles per shift on dedicated routes to a California quick-service restaurant chain with two battery-powered trucks in a relay system to make the most of the available electric charge. And other demonstration projects are planned (Adler 2019).
Electric trucks do exist, mostly medium-duty hybrid that stop and start a lot to recharge the battery. This limits their application to delivery and garbage trucks and buses. These trucks are heavily subsidized at state and federal levels since on average they cost three times as much as a diesel truck equivalent (Table 1).
Whenever I do an internet search on electric trucks, something new will pop up. “Electric tractor” recently brought up The 7030 series John Deere battery pack tractor in December 2016. But if you go to the John Deere website there is absolutely nothing about this tractor.
John Deere is not working on electric tractors because they require mechanical power that is mobile or portable. The electric grid and steam boilers simply aren’t portable to remote locations. Only internal combustion engines can provide efficient mobile and portable heavy-duty power (DTF 2003).
The Port of Los Angeles thought about using heavy-duty all-electric drayage trucks to improve air quality. Drayage trucks drive at least 200 miles a day back and forth between the port and inland warehouses. But it remained a thought experiment because electric drayage trucks cost too much, $307,890. The 350 kWh battery alone is $110,880 dollars. That’s three times as much as an equivalent diesel truck $104,360, and 100 times more than a used $3,000 drayage truck. And cost wasn’t the only problem (Calstart 2013a):
- The range is too short because of the battery weight and size. Drayage trucks need to go at least 200 miles a day, but at best an electric truck could go 100 miles before having to be recharged, which would take too long, and require expensive infrastructure to charge each truck several times a day.
- The batteries/battery pack cost too much.
- Overcoming the long time to recharge by using fast-charging may shorten battery life which would result in the unacceptable expense of a new battery pack before the lifetime of the truck ended
- Although electricity is available almost everywhere, the quantities required for a fleet of Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) drayage trucks are very high and could require significant infrastructure. Multiple costly high-power and/or fast-charging stations would be required
- Roadway power infrastructure is complicated and expensive, and may be appropriate only in certain areas or applications. The impact on the grid and whether enough power could be supplied is unknown for the roughly 10,000 drayage trucks in the I-710 region
- Large battery pack life-cycle and maintenance costs are unknown
- Swapping stations are impractical and would require “industry standardization and ‘ruggedization’ of battery packs, as well as standardized software and communication protocols for batteries and system integration, plus many locations, and the storage space and operating space for multiple large trucks and hundreds of large battery packs.
Table 1. Electric trucks coust 3 times more than diesel equivalents (ICEV) on average. Source: 2016 New York State Electric Vehicle – Voucher Incentive Fund Vehicle Eligibility List. https://truck-vip.ny.gov/NYSEV-VIF-vehicle-list.php
- Battery cost is a major component in the overall cost, ranging from $500 to $700 per kilowatt-hour (kWh) range. This is substantially more than the cost for a conventional diesel powerplant. In their 2013 I-710 commercialization study, CALSTART estimated the cost of a 350 kWh battery system at over $200,000 in 2012.
- A BEV 240 kW fast charger can cost can cost $1,500,000 (with $300,000 in additional costs). It can charge 5 heavy duty trucks (ICF 2016) per charger: $350,000 EVSE 450kW+ $150,000 to $200,000 installation costs per EVSE (Calstart 2015), or $350,000 for a specialized Proterra fast charger able to accommodate up to eight Proterra transit buses (ARB 2015)
- Additional costs to upgrade the distribution system if the rated capacity of the installed electric equipment is exceeded. A fleet with 20 E-Trucks in Southern California had to upgrade a transformer on the customer side of the meter. The transformer cost $470,000. 100 medium-duty E-Trucks charging at the same time would demand 1.5 MW of power on the grid and 50 E-Buses would demand 3.0 MW. This is in the same order of magnitude as the peak power demand of the Transamerica Pyramid building, the tallest skyscraper in San Francisco, CA (Calstart 2015)
- Unlike electric cars, which can charge at night when rates are lowest (11 pm to 8 am for $0.05), e-trucks and buses need to run during the day at the highest peak hours (12 noon to 6 p.m. $0.20) and mid-peak charges (8 a.m. to noon and 6 pm to 11 pm ($0.10), doubling to quadrupling the price paid for electricity (Calstart 2015).
- Earning money from V2G is not likely to be adopted by commercial fleets because they have rigid operating schedules while the grid varies constantly and unpredictably. If the grid tapped into e-truck batteries, it might reduce their range or delay availability (Calstart 2015)
Electric trucks are also not commercial yet because they have too many performance issues, such as poor performance in cold weather, swift acceleration, driving up steep hills, too short a range and battery life, they take too long to recharge, declining miles per day as the battery degrades, all of which make planning routes difficult and inefficient.
It is also much harder to develop batteries for trucks than cars because trucks are expected to last 15 years (versus 10 for cars) or go for 1 million miles. Trucks also have to endure more extreme conditions of temperature, vibrations, and corrosive agents than autos (NRC 2015), and it is hard to make battery packs durable enough for this rougher ride, longer miles, and longevity.
Calstart interviewed many businesses about their reluctance to buy hybrid or all electric trucks, and found their greatest concerns were the purchase cost, lack of confidence in the technology, lack of industry and truck manufacturer support, lack of infrastructure, and the heavy weight (Calstart 2012).
Elon Musk recently tweeted that Tesla will build a semi-truck with absolutely no details, promising to tweet again half a year from now with more information. Why should I believe an Elon Musk tweet any more than a Trump tweet? Especially since nearly all of the electric truck companies I studied for “When Trucks Stop Running” are out of business now, despite huge federal and state subsidies. Given that Tesla is nearly $5 billion in debt, he’s clearly angling to get drayage truck subsidies from the Ports of Los Angeles and San Pedro and more money from investors. None of the electric trucks I studied or that are on the market now were long-haul or off-road tractors, harvesters, construction, logging, or other class 8 heavy-duty trucks (except garbage trucks). They were all much smaller class 4-6 delivery trucks or buses, because they stop and start enough to use hybrid batteries, a far more commercially likely possibility than long-haul trucks, that can go for hundreds of miles before stopping, and be up to 80,000 pounds (and even more weight off-road). This wired.com article points out other issues as well with electric trucks as well.
But if the devil is in the details, then read more below in my summary and excerpts of a paper about electric trucks. Catenary trucks, which use overhead wires, will be covered in another post. Both electric and catenary trucks are covered at greater length in “When Trucks Stop Running: Energy and the Future of Transportation”, 2015, Springer
- BEV Battery Electric Vehicle
- PEV Plug-in Battery Electric Vehicle
- HEV Hybrid Electric Vehicle
- ICEV Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle (usually diesel, also gasoline engines)
What follows is a summary and then deytails of the following paper:
Pelletier, S., et al. September 2014. Battery Electric Vehicles for Goods Distribution: A Survey of Vehicle Technology, Market Penetration, Incentives and Practices. CIRRELT. 51 pages.
While commercial BEVs’ energy costs can be nearly four times cheaper than ICEV equivalents, the downside is that their purchase costs are around three times higher.
A study of drayage trucks on the I-710 corridor found that $3,000 old used trucks were used to take containers from Los Angeles ports to inland facilities that paid $100 per container delivered. “Costs for a full BEV truck are not expected to go below $250,000 even past the 2025 time frame of this report. … The same is true for fuel cells” (Calstart 2013b).
Furthermore, the cost of the equipment necessary for charging the battery can be several thousand dollars. The high cost of level 3 Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) is still a significant barrier to a wider adoption of fast charging. Level 2 charging equipment costs approximately $1,000 per station and installation costs approximately $2,500 to $6,000 for one unit or $18,520 for 10 units. Level 3 fast charging is not used much yet because more research needs to be done on whether this shortens battery life.
PEV and HEV vehicles typically have significant autonomy and payload limitations and involve much larger initial investments in comparison to internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV). The battery pack is the most expensive component in PEVs and significantly augments their purchase cost compared to similar ICEV trucks.
Competing with compressed natural gas (CNG) and existing diesel (ICEV) trucks will be hard — significant improvements in ICEV efficiencies are likely in the future from the 21st Century truck partnership and other efforts to improve diesel engines. BEVs will also have to compete with other fuel alternatives such as CNG, in which case their business case can be even harder to make.
Can’t carry enough cargo: Battery size and weight reduce maximum payloads for electric vans and trucks compared to equivalent diesel trucks. Even HEVs suffer from the extra weight of two power-trains reducing payload capacity.
Short range. Technical disadvantages include a relatively low achievable range. Typical ranges for freight BEVs vary from 100 to 150 kilometers (62-93 miles) on a single charge.
The miles a truck can travel declines over time. In Germany and the Netherlands, the limited operating range of electric trucks caused less flexibility in planning trips and restricted ad-hoc tour planning, resulting in less efficient operations. Also, the range declined over time through battery aging, when carrying heavy loads, and in winter from heating, lights and ventilation. Furthermore, the range listed by EV manufacturers is based on measurements according to the New European Drive Cycle which, compared to real life energy consumption in urban last mile delivery, do not give a reliable indication of the expected range. The reliability of the EVs was dependent on the model; certain prototypes and conversions were judged as reliable, while others were reported as insufficient (Taefi 2014).
Short battery life. At the moment, lithium ion batteries last for four years; however, practical experience has shown that the average period of use is only two years.
Range is also shortened by: extreme temperatures, high driving speeds, rapid acceleration, carrying heavy loads and driving up slopes. The efficiency and driving range varies substantially based on driving conditions and driving habits. Extreme outside temperatures tend to reduce range because more energy must be used to heat or cool the cabin. Cold batteries do not provide as much power as warm batteries do. The use of electrical equipment, such as windshield wipers and seat heaters, can reduce range. High driving speeds reduce range because more energy is required to overcome increased air resistance. Rapid acceleration reduces range compared with smooth acceleration. Hauling heavy loads or driving up significant inclines also reduces range (U.S. Department of Energy 2012b).
Long time to charge battery: It takes a long time to charge the batteries because of their low energy density. Recharging time may take up to 4 to 8 hours, and even with quick-charging equipment, recharging a battery to 80% takes up to 30 minutes.
Charging issues: The most common way of charging was to slow charge the vehicles over night at company premises. The in-house charging infrastructure had to be fixed several times when it was overloaded by the high capacity need of the e-trucks in Germany. Other charging related issues found were that the implementation of a smart grid and load management for large electrical fleets is not yet clarified; solutions to ensure charging in case of power outage are necessary; and charging plugs were too damageable, so only specially trained staff could handle the plug, which caused problems with replacement drivers and training issues. The limited number of charging spots outside the cities and lack of battery swapping for larger vehicles was also an issue (Taefi 2014).
Batteries have low energy density — too low. Batteries are a critical factor in the widespread adoption of electric vehicles but have a much lower energy density than gasoline, partly caused by the large amount of metals used in their production.
Battery life too short: Lithium-ion batteries in current freight BEVs typically provide 1,000 to 2,000 deep cycle life, which should last around six years.
Some manufacturers are working on a 4,000 to 5,000 deep cycle life within 5 years, but there are often tradeoffs to be made between different lithium based battery chemistries. For example, lithium-titanate batteries already reach 5,000 full discharge cycles, but have lower energy densities than other lithium-ion technologies. Calendar life, on the other hand, is a measure of natural degradation with time and was in the 7-10 years range as of 2010 with a projected range of 13-15 years by 2020. Typical battery warranty lengths for electric trucks have been reported as being in the three to five year range.
Battery degradation. Battery health can be influenced by the way they are charged and discharged. For example, frequent overcharging (i.e., charging the battery close to maximum capacity) can affect the battery’s lifespan, just as can keeping the battery at high states of charge for lengthy periods. As expressed through deep cycle life, battery deterioration can also occur if it is frequently discharged to very deep levels . This generally implies that only 80% of the marketed battery capacity is actually usable. Using high power levels to quickly charge batteries could also have negative impacts on battery life, especially if used in the beginning and end of the charging cycle. The uncertainty regarding the effect of extreme operational temperatures on lithium batteries is another issue that should be further considered. All these potential deteriorating factors can speed up the reduction of maximum available battery capacity and shorten vehicle range and battery life.
Lithium-ion batteries. At the moment, lithium ion batteries last for four years; however, practical experience has shown that the average period of use is only two years (AustriaTech 2014).
The Demands on the Electric Grid
Power Requirements to recharge batteries are high. A battery electric truck with a 120 kWh battery would require a charging power level of 15 kW to be able to charge in 8 hours, and the same vehicle with a battery pack of 200 kWh would require a power level of 400 kW to be able to be charged in 15-30 minutes.
The impact of the high power demand from the electricity grid. This could limit the amount of vehicles in a depot which could simultaneously be charged with high power levels, potentially requiring further investments for transformer upgrades.
The stations would also need to recharge a very large amount of batteries at the same time, which could impact the electric grid.
Out of Business
Better Place was considered a fron-trunner in the battery swapping industry but it recently filed for bankruptcy (Fiske (2013)).
Some models have recently been discontinued due to manufacturers’ financial difficulties or restructuring plans; these include Azure Dynamics’ Transit Connect Electric in 2012, Navistar’s eStar in 2013, and Modec’s Box Van in 2011.
Commercial Vehicles are dependent on government subsidies
To see the New York State All-Electric NYSEV-VIF incentives, click here.
To see the California Hybrid Truck and Bus Voucher Incentive Project (HVIP) incentives, click here.
Many U.S. companies which operate battery electric trucks also have received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.
Plug-in electric trucks and vans (class 2 to 8 vehicles) have generally only penetrated niche applications, while remaining dependent on government incentives. They attribute this to key industry players going out of business, the conservative nature of fleet operators when it comes to new technologies, renewed interest in natural gas, and the important cost premium of these vehicles.
Sales of HEV & BEV trucks are very low
The global stock of class 2 to 8 HEVs, PHEVs and BEVs was around 20,000 at the end of 2013, versus 15 million diesel and gasoline (ICEV) trucks sold in 2013.
The vast majority of expected sales are not fully electric plug-ins, but are Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) which do not require plug-in recharging (but which are only suitable for applications that require a great deal of stopping and starting, i.e. garbage trucks, delivery vans).
One of project FREVUE’s reports identifies other factors explaining the limited use of electric freight vehicles in city logistics, namely doubts regarding technology readiness, high purchase costs, limited amount of models on the market, and rapid technology improvements themselves can be a market barrier since fleet operators fear that an electric freight vehicle purchased today could quickly lose all residual value. The uncertainties surrounding the vehicles’ residual value also limit leasing companies’ interest in electric freight vehicles.
The bottom line is that a wider adoption of Battery Electric Vehicles can only be achieved if these prove to be cost-effective.
[ Here are more details. ]
The worst possible use of an e-truck is daily mileage less than 40 km, never needs to return to the base, has little chance of charging while on operations, needs to be charged in 20 minutes or less, carry a full load equal to a diesel truck, carries the full load all day, goes the same speed much of the day, travels on freeways, hilly terrain, and charges at peak load. The best possible use of EV is 60+ km/day, returns to the base to recharge 3 to 6 times a day for 30 minutes a day, carries half a load, has very high variations in speeds traveled in flat urban areas and only charges off-peak (AustriaTech 2014b).
Cost Competitiveness of Battery Electric Vans and Trucks
While commercial BEVs’ energy costs can be nearly four times cheaper than diesel equivalents, the downside is that their purchase costs are approximately three times higher (Feng and Figliozzi 2013).
Furthermore, the cost of the equipment necessary for charging the vehicle’s battery, which can reach several thousands of dollars, should be considered. Maintenance costs should also be significantly less than for ICEVs (Taefi et al. (2014)) and this advantage should increase as the vehicles get older (Electrification Coalition (2010)). Because of these different cost structures between ICEVs and BEVs, the only way to appropriately compare the cost competitiveness of battery electric vans and trucks for goods distribution is to study their whole life costs (McMorrin et al. 2012), according to which all costs incurred over the vehicle’s life are actualized to a net present value. Whole life costs are also referred to as the vehicle’s total cost of ownership (TCO). The following are brief descriptions of the cost structure and TCO of battery electric freight vehicles compared to their conventional counterparts.
Cost Structure: High Fixed Costs and Low Variable Costs Purchase costs for medium duty battery electric trucks offered by AMP Trucks, Inc., Boulder Electric Vehicles, Electric Vehicle International, and Smith Electric Vehicles range from $130,000 to $185,000 US, while equivalent ICE trucks go within the $55,000 to $70,000 range (New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (2014)). One way to decrease the cost premium of these larger BEVs is to be able to right-size the costly battery according to the application (Electrification Coalition 2013). However, while this measure could significantly improve the vehicles’ business case and allow for additional payload capacity, the smaller battery would require more frequent deep discharges, which could cause accelerated battery deterioration (Pitkanen and Van Amburg 2012). Another option for reducing upfront costs while also addressing fleet operators’ concerns about battery life is to lease the battery for a monthly fee based on energy consumed or distance traveled (McMorrin et al. 2012).
However, uncertainties regarding battery residual value limit many fleets’ interest in battery leasing (Pitkanen and Van Amburg (2012)), most likely because these uncertainties will be integrated into the leasing fee. Furthermore, battery leasing currently only seems available for a few battery electric vans but not for trucks, for whom it could significantly help the business case based on whole life costs (Valenta (2013)). Purchase costs for battery electric vans vary largely depending on GVWs and the availability of battery leasing. Large manufacturer products with battery leasing go for about $25,000 for GVWs close to 2,100 kg. Examples of these include Renault for its Kangoo Z.E. vans and Nissan for its e-NV200 van, with monthly battery leasing fees starting at approximately $100 per month and varying according to monthly mileage and contract lengths (Renault (2014c), Nissan (2014d)). Typical purchase costs with battery ownership range from approximately $25,000 for lighter battery electric vans (GVW starting at 1100 kg) with limited battery capacities, to about $100,000 for larger battery electric vans (GVW up to 3,500 kg) with higher battery capacities. Conventional cargo vans with GVWs close to 4,500 kg cost between $30,000 and $40,000, GVWs close to 3,500 kg are within the $25,000-$30,000 price range, and GVWs around 2,500 kg are closer to $20,000 (Nissan (2014a)).
Valuable sources for vehicle prices include Source London (2013) and New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (2014), referred to as SL (2013) and NYSEV-VIF (2014) in the tables. Some models’ prices are simply not available, most likely because, as Lee et al. (2013, p.8025) point out, “commercial vehicle prices can vary depending upon negotiation between fleet operators and truck manufacturers, and truck volumes to be purchased”. This could also imply that the prices listed here could vary depending on specific purchasing contexts. Ranges for these class 3 to 6 trucks are from 115 to 200 km (71-124 miles) depending on battery size, vehicle weight
- $133,000 AMP vehicles 100 kWh battery, 6350-8845 kg GVW
- $130-150,000 Boulder 500-series 72 kWh battery, 4765-5215 kg GVW, payload 1405 kg,
- $150,000 Navistar eStar 80 kWh battery 5490 kg GVW, payload 1860 kg
- $185,000 EVI walk-in van 99 kWh battery, 7255-10435 GVW
- $150,000 Smith Electric “Newton” 80 kWh, $181,000 with a 120 kWh battery
Den Boer et al. (2013) state that approximately 1,000 battery electric distribution trucks were operated around the world as of July 2013. CALSTART’s report on the demand assessment of electric truck fleets (Parish and Pitkanen 2012) claims that industry experts have estimated there were less than 500 battery electric trucks in use in North America as of 2012, with most sales made in US states like California and New York, which offered incentives for these vehicles. Also, approximately 4,500 hybrid electric trucks were sold in North America as of 2012. The large majority of hybrid and battery electric trucks sold were in medium duty and vocational applications rather than long-haul class 8 applications. Stocks of freight electric vehicles (vans and trucks) as of January 1st 2012 in Europe included 70 in Belgium, 106 in Denmark, 338 in Germany, 1,566 in France, 217 in the Netherlands, 103 in Norway, 38 in Austria, 13 in Portugal, 459 in Spain, and over 2000 in London (TU Delft et al. 2013). However, most of the electric vans in the UK are old low performance vans with lead-acid batteries, with only a few hundred modern electric vans with lithium-ion batteries sold in 2012 (Cluzel et al. 2013).
As previously noted, the advantage in the cost structure of BEVs comes from their lower variable costs (i.e., energy and maintenance costs) (McMorrin et al. 2012).
However, electricity rates incurred depend on geographical location, average consumption levels, and time of use (Hydro-Quebec (2014)). Charging during off-peak hours can allow for reduced electricity rates and seasonal price variations may also occur. It is therefore necessary to evaluate the potential of lower energy costs of commercial BEVs according to one’s specific context.
Gallo and Tomi´ c (2013) provide an overview of the performance of delivery BEVs (class 4-5) operated by a large parcel delivery fleet in Los Angeles. The findings showed that in comparison to similar diesel vehicles, the electric trucks were up to four times more energy efficient, offering up to 80% lower annual fuel costs. The report estimated maintenance savings ranging from $0.02 to $0.10 per mile, finding these savings “will vary widely depending on driving conditions, vehicle usage, driver behavior, vehicle model and regenerative braking usage”(p.53). Other findings included the need for drivers to be trained to adapt their techniques to electric trucks, that a minimum utilization of 50 miles per day is necessary to recuperate purchase costs in a reasonable time span, and that incentives are still necessary at this stage to make the vehicles a viable alternative. Additionally, some repairs needed to be provided by the vehicle manufacturers because of the limited experience of fleet mechanics with electric trucks. TU Delft et al. (2013) also reported several companies having experienced a lack of available resources for quickly solving technical issues with freight BEVs. This is important to consider because in order to profit from lower variable costs, companies must have access to reliable maintenance services and spare parts.
Figliozzi (2013) compared whole life costs of battery electric delivery trucks to a conventional diesel truck serving less-than-truckload delivery routes. The BEVs are the Navistar eStar (priced at $150,000) and Smith Newton (priced at $150,000), while the diesel reference is an Isuzu N-series (priced at $50,000). Different urban delivery scenarios were designed based on typical US cities values and different routing constraints. Thus, 243 different route instances were simulated by varying values for the number of customers, the service area, the depot-service area distance, the customer service time, and the customer demand weight. Different battery replacement and cost scenarios were also studied. The planning horizon was set to ten years, with the residual value of the vehicles set at 20% of their purchase price. In spite of the fact that the electric trucks had a higher TCO in 210 out of the 243 route instances, a combination of the following factors would allow them to be a viable alternative: high daily distances, low speeds and congestion, frequent customer stops during which an ICEV would idle, other factors amplifying the BEVs’ superior efficiency, financial incentives or technological breakthroughs to reduce purchase costs, and a planning horizon above ten years. With a battery replacement after 150,000 miles at a forecasted cost of $600/kWh, the diesel truck always had a lower TCO.
The need for a battery replacement significantly decreases thee business case for BEV Trucks
Battery electric freight vehicles currently fit much more into city distribution than long haul applications because of the battery’s energy density limitations (den Boer et al. 2013). Typical daily miles traveled by urban delivery trucks are often lower than the range already achieved by electric commercial vehicles (Feng and Figliozzi 2013). With limited payloads, this makes them more viable for last mile deliveries in urban areas involving frequent stop-and-go movements, limited route lengths, as well as low travel speeds (Nesterova et al. 2013), AustriaTech 2014b), Taefi et al. 2014)). With forecasted reductions in battery costs and evolution of diesel prices are compared to electricity prices, as time goes by, BEV distribution trucks should become more competitive with equivalent ICEVs based on their own economic proposition (den Boer et al. 2013). However, commercial BEVs will also have to compete with other fuel alternatives such as compressed natural gas, in which case their business case can be even harder to make (Valenta 2013). Furthermore, significant improvements in ICEV efficiencies are expected in upcoming years (Mosquet et al. (2011)). Nevertheless, for now, the appropriateness of using delivery BEVs ultimately depends on the context of their intended use, but the high purchase cost has been extensively pointed out as a huge cost effectiveness barrier, and the need for incentives at this stage of the market seems like a recurring requirement for a viable business case.
The goal of financial incentives is to reduce the upfront costs of electric vehicles and charging equipment (IEA and EVI (2013)). One form is purchase subsidies granted upon buying the vehicle (Mock and Yang (2014)). An example of this is the California Hybrid Truck and Bus Voucher Incentive Project (HVIP) which provides up to $35,000 towards hybrid truck purchases and up to $50,000 towards battery electric truck purchases to be used in California (Parish and Pitkanen (2012)). Eligible vehicles can be found in CEPAARB (2014). Another similar program is the New York Truck Voucher Incentive Program, which offers up to $60,000 for electric truck purchases to be used New York (New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (2014)).
Companies are also eligible to receive similar purchase subsidies for participating in demonstration or performance evaluation projects (US DOE (2013b)).
Overviews of tax exemptions related to electric vehicles can be found in IEA and EVI (2013), Mock and Yang (2014), ACEA (2014), and US DOE (2012a).
Companies Experimenting with BEVs In North America, large companies using battery electric delivery vehicles include FedEx, General Electric, Coca-Cola, UPS, Frito-Lay, Staples, Enterprise, Hertz and others (Electrification Coalition (2013b)). Frito-Lay alone has been operating 176 battery electric delivery trucks in North America since 2010 (US DOE (2014b)). Fedex also operates over 100 electric delivery trucks (Woody (2012)). Many U.S. companies which operate battery electric trucks have received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover a portion of the vehicles’ purchase costs (US DOE (2013b)).
BEVs in city logistics have often been used for parcel delivery, deliveries to stores, waste collection and home supermarket deliveries. A few notable private initiatives identified in the report include Deret’s 50 electric vans for last mile deliveries to city centers in France, UPS’s 12 Modec vehicles for parcel and post delivery in the UK and Germany, Tesco’s 15 Modec vehicles for on-line shopping deliveries in London, Sainsbury’s use of 19 electric vans for supermarket
Drivers expressed concerns regarding the reduction in payloads.
Delivered products include parcel, courier, textiles, fast food, bakery, hygienic articles and household articles.
Negative factors experienced included the required investments (vehicles and EVSE), reduced payloads, limited range, the effect of cold temperatures on range, imprecise marketed vehicle ranges, the lack of resources to fix technical problems, incompatibility of vehicles’ connectors with public charging infrastructure, and the need to train drivers to better adapt to the vehicles. All in all, the case studies indicated that the vehicles were found to be most adequate for last mile and night deliveries.
Electric Tricycles carrying up to 440 pounds (200 kg)
Urban consolidation centers (UCC) are logistic facilities multiple organizations use, close to the area they serve. UCCs using BEVs for last mile deliveries also often use smaller vehicles ideal for tight urban areas, which can lead to increases in vehicle kilometers per ton delivered (Allen et al. (2012)). These smaller vehicles are typically electric tricycles, which have payloads of up to 200 kg (AustriaTech 2014b) and low driving speeds. These tricycles can find parking locations more easily than larger vehicles, can often use bicycle lanes for faster access to customers in congested and pedestrian areas, and from a cost point of view are more affected by driver costs than purchase costs and utilization rates (Tipagornwong and Figliozzi 2014). Allen et al. (2007) present an example of the use of electric tricycles by a UCC. La Petite Reine used a consolidation center in the center of Paris for last mile deliveries of food products, flowers, parcels, and equipment/parts with electric tricycles with a maximum payload of 100 kg (220 pounds). The initial trial in 2003 was deemed a success, with monthly trips growing from 796 to 14,631 and the number of tricycles from seven to 19 in the first 24 months. Operations are now permanent and La Petite Reine operates three locations in Paris with over 70 collaborators, 80 tricycles, 15 electric light duty vehicles and 1 million deliveries per year (La Petite Reine 2013).
Nesterova et al. (2013) present two other cases of two phased deliveries in Paris integrating to some extent electric bikes and tricycles. The first is Chronopost International, which offers express delivery of parcels and uses two underground areas in Paris for sorting last mile deliveries. The parcels are first transported from their facility at the border of Paris to their underground areas, where they are sorted per route and distributed to customers by electric bikes and vans in inner Paris. The second is Distripolis, a delivery concept tested by road transport operator GEODIS. A depot in Bercy receives shipments from three organizations and delivers the packages under 200 kg to multiple UCCs in the city center of Paris (heavier packages are directly delivered to the receiver). From here, electric trucks and tricycles are used for the last mile deliveries of the light packages. Distripolis operated 10 light duty electric vehicles (Electron Electric truck, GVW 3.5 tons) and one electric tricycle in 2012, and aims at having 56 tricycles and 75 electric vehicles by 2015.
BESTFACT (2013) provides another case of two-phased deliveries with electric vehicles. Gnewt Cargo operates a transhipment facility for the last mile deliveries of an office supplies company in London (Office Depot). They use an 18 tons vehicle to transport parcels from the office supplies company warehouse in the suburbs of London to the transhipment center in the city, where the parcels are transferred onto electric vans and tricycles for final delivery to customers. Initially a trial in 2009, the company has permanently implanted this system because it involved no increases in operational costs, and it plans to implement similar delivery systems in other cities (Browne et al. (2011)).
Other Interesting Distribution Concepts for BEVs
An interesting experiment regarding last mile deliveries with BEVs can be found in the context of project STRAIGHTSOL, during which TNT Express integrated a mobile depot into their operations in Brussels with electric vehicles during the summer of 2013 (Nathanail et al. 2013), Anderson and Eidhammer 2013), Verlinde et al. 2014). A large trailer equipped as a mobile depot with typical depot facilities was loaded with parcels at TNT’s depot near the airport in the morning. Next it was towed by a truck to a dedicated parking spot in the city center, where last mile deliveries as well as pick-ups were made with electric tricycles by a Brussels courier company, which then returned to the mobile depot with the collected parcels. At the end of the day, the mobile depot was towed back to TNT’s depot, from where the collected parcels were shipped. Challenges included gaining exclusive access to the parking location for the mobile depot, significant increases in operating costs, and decreases in the punctuality of the deliveries and pickups (Johansen et al. 2014), Verlinde et al. 2014).
They could find a niche application in short haul port drayage operations (CALSTART 2013b). One example of this practice is found at the Port of Los Angeles, where 25 heavy duty battery electric drayage trucks manufactured by Balqon were tested for operational suitability. In exchange for the purchase of the trucks, Balqon agreed to locate its factory in L.A. and pay the port a royalty for future sales (EVI et al. (2012)). The Port of L.A. also tested similar heavy duty battery electric trucks from Transpower and U.S Hybrid, as well as a fuel cell heavy duty truck (Port of L.A. 2014).
Incentives still play a critical role in the business case of these vehicles, but the long-term unsustainability of certain financial incentives and recent trends suggest their imminent phasing out (Bernhart et al. 2014) will require that these vehicles be cost competitive independent of such incentives. One could argue that these vehicles are not ready for this challenge, in view of current cost dynamics, recent financial setbacks of key industry players, often resulting in discontinued vehicle models (Schmouker 2012), Shankleman 2011), Truckinginfo 2013), Everly 2014), Torregrossa 2014)).
The market take-up of electric vehicles in urban freight transport is very slow, because costs are high compared to conventional vehicles and companies are still uncertain about the maturity of the technology and about the availability of charging infrastructure.
The worst possible use of an e-truck is daily mileage less than 40 km, never needs to return to the base, has little chance of charging while on operations, needs to be charged in 20 minutes or less, carry a full load equal to a diesel truck, carries the full load all day, goes the same speed much of the day, travels on freeways, hilly terrain, and charges at peak load. The best possible use of EV is 60+ km/day, returns to the base to recharge 3 to 6 times a day for 30 minutes a day, carries half a load, has very high variations in speeds traveled in flat urban areas and only charges off-peak.
Financially at least 50% public subsidies pay for it
At present, lithium ion batteries are most often used in electric freight vehicles with a current battery lifetime of 1000 to 2000 cycles (approximately 6 years). Also, the kilometer range declines over time, which may reduce peak power capacity and energy density. For these reasons electric vehicles are currently most suitable for daily urban distribution activities as the battery energy density is too low for regular long haul applications. At the moment, lithium ion batteries last for four years; however, practical experience has shown that the average period of use is only two years. Improvements in battery powered trucks are expected within five years in terms of the cost and durability of batteries.
- Abdallah, T. 2013. The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle routing problem with time windows. Master’s thesis, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. URL https://uwspace. uwaterloo.ca/bitstream/handle/10012/7582/Abdallah_Tarek.pdf?sequence=1
- 2014. Overview of purchase and tax incentives for electric vehicles in the EU. URL http: //www.acea.be/uploads/publications/Electric_vehicles_overview__2014.pdf
- 2011. Fleet fast charging station, 250 kW DC. URL http://evsolutions.avinc. com/uploads/products/5_AV_EV250-FS_061110_fleet_dc.pdf
- Adler, A. 2019. NFI, Penske reach electric-driving milestones with Freightliner test trucks. freightwaves.com
- Aixam Mega. 2014a. e-Worker basic version. URL http://www.mega-vehicles.co.uk/ ressources/modeles/E-Worker-basic-version.pdf. Last accessed 9/5/2014. Aixam Mega. 2014b. Mega e-Worker brochure. URL http://www.megavan.org/ MEGAEWORKERBROCHURE.pdf
- Allen, J., M. Browne, A. Woodburn, J. Leonardi. 2012. The role of urban consolidation centres in sustainable freight transport. Transport Reviews 32(4) 473–490.
- Allen, J., G. Thorne, M. Browne. 2007. BESTUFS good practice guide on urban freight transport. BESTUFS consortium. URL http://www.bestufs.net/download/BESTUFS_II/good_ practice/English_BESTUFS_Guide.pdf
- Allied Electric. 2014a. Peugeot eBipper electric vans. URL http://www.alliedelectric.co.uk/ electric-vans/peugeot-ebipper .
- Allied Electric. 2014b. Peugeot eBoxer electric vans. URL http://www.alliedelectric.co.uk/ electric-vans/peugeot-eboxer
- Allied Electric. 2014c. Peugeot eExpert electric vans. URL http://www.alliedelectric.co.uk/ electric-vans/peugeot-eexpert
- Allied Electric. 2014d. Peugeot ePartner electric vans. URL http://www.alliedelectric.co.uk/ electric-vans/peugeot-epartner
- AMP Electric Vehicles. 2014. Commercial Chassis. URL http://ampelectricvehicles.com/ourchassis/commercial-chassis. Last accessed 19/5/2014.
- Anderson, J., O. Eidhammer. 2013. Project SRAIGHTSOL deliverable D4.2: Monitoring of demonstration achievements – second period. URL https://docs.google.com/file/d/ 0ByCtQR4yIfYDckJoWU5DZGxycHM/edit?pli=1.
- ARB. October 2015. TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT: MEDIUM- AND HEAVY- DUTY BATTERY ELECTRIC TRUCKS AND BUSES. Air Resources Board, California Environmental protection agency.
- AustriaTech 2014a. Annex: Electric fleets in urban logistics – Overview of current low emission vehicles. Published as part of the ENCLOSE project. URL http://www.austriatech.at/files/ get/9e26eb124ad90ffa93067085721d4942/austriatech_electricfleets_annex.pdf. Last accessed 22/5/2014.
- AustriaTech 2014b. Efficiency in small Electric fleets in and medium-sized urban logistics: historic towns. ENCLOSE project, funded by Intelligent Energy Improving urban freight Published as part of the Europe (IEE), Vienna, Austria. URL http://www.austriatech.at/files/get/834747f18fdcc9538376c9314a4d7652/austriatech_electricfleets_broschuere.pdf
- Azure Dynamics. 2011. Transit Connect Electric specifications and ordering guide. pdf
- Balgon 2013a. Mule M100 brochure. URL http://www.balqon.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/ 09/m100_brochure_2013.pdf
- Balgon 2013b. MX30 electric drayage tractor brochure. URL http://www.balqon.com/wpcontent/uploads/2013/08/71_MX30D.pdf
- Balgon 2014a. Mule M100 electric truck. URL http://www.balqon.com/electric-vehicles/ mule-m100/
- Balgon 2014b. MX30 class 8 electric tractor. URL http://www.balqon.com/electric-vehicles/ nautilus-xe30
- Balgon 2014c. Nautilus XRE20. URL http://www.balqon.com/electric-vehicles/nautilusxe20
- Balgon 2014d. XRE20 product specifications. URL http://www.balqon.com/xre-20-productspecifications/
- Berman, B., J. Gartner. 2013. Report executive summary: Selecting electric vehicles for fleets. Navigant Research. URL http://www.navigantresearch.com/wp-assets/uploads/2013/ 02/RB-SEVF-13-Executive-Summary.pdf
- Bernhart, W., et al. 2014. E-mobility index for Q1/2014. Roland Berger Strategy Consultants. URL http://www.rolandberger.com/media/ pdf/Roland_Berger_E_mobility_index_2014_20140301.pdf
- 2013. Deliverable 2.2: Best practice handbook 1 (version 1.1). URL http: //www.bestfact.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/BESTFACT_BPH.pdf
- Birmingham Post. 2011. Modec electric van know-how sold to US firm Navistar. URL http://www.birminghampost.co.uk/business/manufacturing/modec-electric-vanknow-how-sold-3921741
- Botsford, C., et al. 2009. Fast charging vs. slow charging: pros and cons for the new age of electric vehicles. Paper presented at the EVS24 International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium. Stavanger. http://www.cars21.com/assets/link/EVS24-3960315%20Botsford.pdf
- Boulder Electric Vehicle. 2013a. 1000-series master brochure. URL http://www.boulderev.com/ docs/1000%20Master%20Brochure.pdf.
- Boulder Electric Vehicle. 2013b. 500-series master brochure. URL http://www.boulderev.com/ docs/500%20Master%20Brochure.pdf.
- Boulder Electric Vehicle. 2013c. Why Electric? URL http://www.boulderev.com/goelectric. php
- Browne, M., J. Allen, J. Leonardi. 2011. Evaluating the use of an urban consolidation centre and electric vehicles in central london. IATSS research 35(1) 1–6.
- Bruglieri, M., et al. 2014. The vehicle relocation problem for the one-way electric vehicle sharing: An application to the Milan case. Procedia-Social & Behavioral Sciences 11 18–27
- Bunkley, N. 2010. Ford starts to ship an electric delivery van. The New York Times URL http:// www.nytimes.com/2010/12/08/business/08electric.html?_r=0. Last accessed 19/5/2014.
- California Environmental Protection Agency’s Air Resources Board (CEPAARB). 2014. HVIP eligible vehicles – zero-emission. http://www.arb.ca.gov/msprog/aqip/hvip/042414_ vehicle_eligibility_zev.pdf
- Calstart. 2012. Demand Assessment of First-Mover Hybrid and Electric Truck Fleets 2012 – 2016. Calstart.org
- Calstart 2013a. I-710 Project zero-emission truck commercialization study final report. Pasadena, California. URL http://www.calstart.org/Libraries/I-710_Project/I-710_ Project_Zero-Emission_Truck_Commercialization_Study_Final_Report.sflb.ashx. Last accessed 20/5/2014.
- Calstart 2013b. Technologies, challenges and opportunities: I-710 Zero-emission freight corridor vehicle systems (Revised Version Final V1). URL http://www.calstart.org/ Libraries/I-710_Project/Technologies_Challenges_and_Opportunities_I-710_ZeroEmission_Freight_Corridor_Vehicle_Systems.sflb.ash
- Carlyle, R. 2014. What commercially viable alternate power sources for semi-trucks / tractor-trailers are likely to become available in the next decade? Quora.
- Chan, C.C. 2007. The state of the art of electric, hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles. Proceedings of the IEEE 95(4) 704–718.
- Chawla, N., S. Tosunoglu. 2012. State of the art in inductive charging for electronic appliances and its future in transportation. Paper presented at the 2012 Florida Conference on Recent Advances in Robotics. Boca Raton, Florida. http://www.eng.fiu.edu/mme/Robotics/elib/FCRAR2012-InductiveCharging.pdf
- Calstart. September 2015. Electric Truck & Bus Grid Integration Opportunities, Challenges & Recommendations. CALSTART, Inc.
- Chen, T.D., K.M. Kockelman, M. Khan. 2013. The electric vehicle charging station location problem: a parking-based assignment method for seattle. Proceedings of the 92nd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board in Washington DC . URL http://www.caee. utexas.edu/prof/kockelman/public_html/TRB13EVparking.pdf
- Citroen. 2014. Citro¨en Berlingo Electric. URL http://www.citroen.fr/vehicules/lesvehicules-utilitaires-citroen/citroen-berlingo/citroen-berlingo-electric. html#sticky
- Cluzel, C., B. Lane, E. Standen. 2013. Pathways to high penetration of electric ve hicles. Element Energy and Ecolane, commissioned by The Committee on Climate Change. URL http://www.theccc.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/CCC-EVpathways_FINAL-REPORT_17-12-13-Final.pdf
- Comarth. 2014. T-truck. URL http://www.comarth.com/en/t-truck.aspx
- Crist, P. 2012. Electric vehicles revisited: cussion Paper No. 2012-03, International Costs, subsidies and prospects. DisTransport Forum at the OECD. Paris. URL http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/docserver/download/5k8zvv7h9lq7.pdf?expires= 1407278294&id=id&accname=guest&checksum=5AC58E3FC5201411F1A7446C5EAE9F7B.
- Davis, B.A., M.A. Figliozzi. 2013. A methodology to evaluate the competitiveness of electric delivery trucks. Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review 49(1) 8–23.
- de Santiago, J., et al. 2012. Electrical motor drivelines in commercial all-electric vehicles: A review. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 61(2) 475–484.
- Delucchi, M.A., T.E. Lipman. 2001. An analysis of the retail and lifecycle cost of battery-powered electric vehicles. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 6(6) 371–404.
- den Boer, E., S. Aarnink, F. Kleiner, J. Pagenkopf. 2013. Zero emission trucks: An overview of state-of-the-art technologies and their potential. CE Delft and DLR, commissioned by the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT). URL http://www.cedelft.eu/publicatie/zero_emission_trucks/1399
- Dharmakeerthi, C.H., N. Mithulananthan, T.K. Saha. 2014. Impact of electric vehicle fast charging on power system voltage stability. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems 57 241–249.
- DHL. 2014. Deutsche Post DHL fleet of alternative vehicles continues to grow. http://www.dhl.com/en/press/releases/releases_2014/group/dp_dhl_fleet_of_ alternative_vehicles_continues_to_grow.html#.U5dISPl5MlI
- Dolan, M. 2010. Ford works with manufacturer for new electric van. The Wall Street Journal URL http://blogs.wsj.com/drivers-seat/2010/09/24/ford-switches-role-withnew-electric-van/?blog_id=146&post_id=3782
- Dong, J., C. Liu, Z. Lin. 2014. Charging infrastructure planning for promoting battery electric vehicles: An activity-based approach using multiday travel data. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies 38 44–55.
- DTF. June 2003. Diesel-Powered Machines and Equipment: Essential Uses, Economic Importance and Environmental Performance. Diesel Technology Forum.
- Duleep, G., H. van Essen, B. Kampman, M M. Gr¨unig. 2011. Impacts of electric vehicles – Deliverable 2: Assessment of electric vehicle and battery technology.
- CE Delft, ICF International and Ecologic, commissioned by the European Commission. http://www.cedelft.eu/?go= downloadPub&id=1153&file=4058_D2defreportHvE_1314726004.pdf
- Eberle, U., R. von Helmolt. 2010. Sustainable transportation based on electric vehicle concepts: a brief overview. Energy & Environmental Science 3(6) 689–699.
- Ehrler, V., P. Hebes. 2012. Electromobility for city logistics – the solution to urban transport collapse? An analysis beyond theory. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 48 786–795.
- Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). 2013. Total cost of ownership model for current plug-in electric vehicles. Tech. rep., Palo Alto, California. URL http://www.epri.com/abstracts/ Pages/ProductAbstract.aspx?ProductId=000000003002001728
- Electric Vehicles Initiative (EVI), Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI), IEA’s Implementing Agreement for Cooperation on Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Technologies and Programmes (IA-HEV). 2012. EV city casebook: A look at the global electric vehicle movement. http:// iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/EVCityCasebook.pdf
- Electric Vehicles International. 2013a. EVI Medium Duty Truck Specification Sheet. URL http:// evi-usa.com/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=SyZhwUVqNJs%3d&tabid=83
- Electric Vehicles International. 2013b. EVI Walk-in Van Specification Sheet. URL http:// evi-usa.com/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=Er2c6QQx-Mo%3d&tabid=62
- Electrification Coalition. 2010. Fleet electrification roadmap.
- URL http://www. electrificationcoalition.org/sites/default/files/EC-Fleet-Roadmap-screen.pdf
- Electrification Coalition. 2013a. EV case study: The city of Houston forward thinking on electrification. URL http://www.electrificationcoalition.org/sites/default/files/Houston_ Case_Study_Final_113013.pdf
- Electrification Coalition. 2013b. State of the plug-in electric vehicle market. Written in consultation with PricewaterhouseCoopers. nothing of interest, mainly autos
- Element Energy. 2012. State of the art – commercial electric vehicles in western urban Europe. Commissioned by the Cross River Partnership (CRP) within the URBACT II programme. URL http://urbact.eu/fileadmin/Projects/EVUE/documents_media/OP_State_of_the_ Art_report_May_20121.pdf
- Emadi, A., K. Rajashekara, S.S. Williamson, S.M. Lukic. 2005. Topological overview of hybrid electric and fuel cell vehicular power system architectures and configurations. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 54(3) 763–770. EMOSS. 2014. e-truck—full electric truck. URL http://www.emoss.biz/electric-truck. Last accessed 11/5/2014.
- Etezadi-Amoli, M., K. Choma, J. Stefani. 2010. Rapid-charge electric-vehicle stations. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery 25(3) 1883–1887. European Commission. 2013. Green public procurement (GPP) in practice: Framework agreement for zero-emission vehicles. URL http://ec.europa.eu/environment/gpp/pdf/news_alert/ Issue30_Case_Study65_Oslo_zero_emission_vehicles.pdf. Last accessed 6/6/2014.
- Everly, S. 2014. Electric truck maker Smith Electric attracts $42 million investment, plans to reopen Kansas City plant. The Kansas City Star URL http://www.kansascity.com/ news/business/article356097/Electric-truck-maker-Smith-Electric-attracts42-million-investment-plans-to-reopen-Kansas-City-plant.html
- EV-INFO. 2014a. URL http://www.ev-info.com/. Last accessed 15/5/2014. EV-INFO. 2014b. List of electric vehicle battery manufacturers. URL http://www.ev-info.com/ electric-vehicle-battery-manufacturer
- EV-world. 2013. Citroen Introduces 2013 Berlingo Electric Work Van. URL http://evworld. com/news.cfm?newsid=29975. Last accessed 22/8/2014.
- Feng, W., M. Figliozzi. 2013. An economic and technological analysis of the key factors affecting the competitiveness of electric commercial vehicles: A case study from the USA market. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies 26 135–145.
- Finlay, J.G. 2012. Strategic options for Azure Dynamics in hybrid and battery electric vehicle markets. Master’s thesis, Simon Fraser University. URL http://summit.sfu.ca/system/files/ iritems1/13099/MOT%2520MBA%25202012%2520James%2520Gordon%2520Finlay.pdf
- Fiske, G. 2013. Better Place files for bankruptcy. The Times of Israel URL http://www. timesofisrael.com/better-place-files-for-bankruptcy/. Last accessed 28/5/2014.
- Fleet News. 2010. New evidence shows electric vans could last over ten years. URL http://www.fleetnews.co.uk/news/2010/12/1/new-evidence-shows-electric-vanscouldlast-more-than-10-years/38353/
- Frade, I., A. Ribeiro, G. Gonalves, A.P. Antunes. 2011. Optimal location of charging stations for electric vehicles in a neighborhood in Lisbon, Portugal. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2252 91–98.
- Gallo, J-B., J. Tomi´c. 2013. tion. California Hybrid, Battery electric parcel delivery truck testing and demonstration. Efficient and Advanced Truck Research Center (CalHEAT). URL http://www.calstart.org/Libraries/CalHEAT_2013_Documents_Presentations/ Battery_Electric_Parcel_Delivery_Truck_Testing_and_Demonstration.sflb.ashx
- 2014. The Electron. URL http://www.geodis.com/en/view-868-article.html; jsessionid=-T+zlU8bsRm30gkVlo7loQ__
- Gonzalez, J., R. Alvaro, C. Gamallo, M. Fuentes, J. Fraile-Ardanuy. 2014. Determining electric vehicle charging point locations considering drivers’ daily activities. Procedia Computer Science 32 647–654.
- Green Waco. 2008. Jolly-2000 Electric Vehicle. http://www.greenwaco.be/infra/pdf/ jolly2000-fr.pdf
- Haghbin, S., et al. 2010. Integrated chargers for EV’s and PHEV’s: Examples and new solutions.
- IEEE 2010 XIX International Conference on Electrical Machines (ICEM). IEEE, Rome, 1–6.
- Hannisdahl, O.H., et al. 2013. EV revolution in Norway – explanations and lessons the EVS27 International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle The future is electric! the learned. Paper presented at Symposium. Barcelona. URL http://www.gronnbil.no/getfile.php/FILER/Norway%20-%20lessons%20learned%20from%20a%20global%20EV%20success%20story%20-%20Final.pdf
- Hatton, C.E., et al. 2009. Charging stations for urban settings the design of a product platform for electric vehicle infrastructure in Dutch cities. Paper presented at the EVS24 International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium. Stavanger. http://www.e-mobile.ch/pdf/2010/EVS-24-1230095.pdf
- Hazeldine, T., et al. 2009. Market outlook to 2022 for battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. AEA Group, commissionned by the Committee on Climate Change, Oxfordshire, England. URL http://www.ricardo-aea.com/cms/assets/Uploads/Papers-and-Reports/SustainableTransport/AEA-Market-outlook-to-2022-for-battery-electric-vehicles-and-plugin-hybrid-electric-vehicles-1.pdf
- He, F., D. Wu, Y. Yin, Y. Guan. 2013. Optimal deployment of public charging stations for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Transportation Research Part B: Methodological 47 87–101.
- Hensley, R., J. Newman, M. Rogers. 2012. Battery technology charges ahead. McKinsey & Company. URL http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/energy_resources_materials/battery_ technology_charges_ahead
- Hess, A., F. Malandrino, M.B. Reinhardt, C. Casetti, K.A. Hummel, J.M. Barcel-Ordinas. 2012. Optimal deployment of charging stations for electric vehicular networks. Proceedings of the first workshop on Urban networking, Association for Computing Machinery. New York, NY, 1–6.
- Howell, D. 2011. Energy storage R&D. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, presented at the 2011 U.S. DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting. URL http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/merit_review_2011/ electrochemical_storage/es000_howell_2011_o.pdf
- Hydro-Qu´ebec. 2014. Comparison of electricity prices in major North American cities. URL http://www.hydroquebec.com/publications/en/comparison_prices/pdf/ comp_2014_en.pdf
- Idaho National Laboratory. 2014. DC fast charging effects on battery life and evse efficiency and security testing. Presentation given at the 2014 U.S Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting. URL http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2014/07/f18/vss131_francfort_ 2014_o.pdf
- I’Moving. 2014a. I’Moving Ecomile: small size for large transport. URL http://www.i-moving. it/en/product/ecomile.html. Last accessed 28/6/2014. I’Moving. 2014b. I’Moving Jolly 2000: large cargo space for city logistics. URL http://www.imoving.it/en/product/jolly-2000.html
- I’Moving. 2014c. I’Moving Smile: piccolo, leggero, affidabile. URL http://www.i-moving.it/en/ product/smile.html. Last accessed 28/6/2014. International Energy Agency (IEA). 2011. Technology roadmap – electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. URL http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/EV_ PHEV_Roadmap.pdf
- International Energy Agency (IEA), Electric Vehicles Initiative (EVI). 2013. Global EV outlook – Understanding the electric vehicle landscape to 2020. URL http://www.iea.org/ publications/globalevoutlook_2013.pdf
- International Energy Agency’s Implementing Agreement for co-operation on Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Technologies and Programmes (IA-HEV). 2013. Hybrid and electric vehicles The electric drive gains traction. IA-HEV 2012 Annual Report. URL
- http://www.ieahev. org/assets/1/7/IA-HEV_Annual_Report_May_2013_3MB.pdf
- Jerram, L., J. Gartner. 2013. Report executive summary – Hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid, and battery electric light duty, medium duty, and heavy duty trucks and vans: Global market analysis and forecasts. Navigant Research. URL http://www.navigantresearch.com/wpassets/uploads/2013/12/HTKS-13-Executive-Summary.pdf
- Ji, S., C.R. et al. 2012. Electric vehicles in China: emissions and health impacts. Environmental science & technology 46(4) 2018–2024. http://personal.ce.umn.edu/~marshall/Marshall_34.pdf
- Jia, L., et al. 2012. Optimal siting and sizing of electric vehicle charging stations. 2012 IEEE International Electric Vehicle Conference (IEVC). IEEE, 1–6.
- Johansen, B.G., et al. 2014. Project STRAIGHTSOL deliverable D5.1: Demonstration assessments. URL https://docs.google.com/file/d/0ByCtQR4yIfYDLVk2MUZkMW1pdzQ/ edit?pli=1
- Kempton, W., J. Tomi´c. 2005. Vehicle-to-grid power implementation: From stabilizing the grid to supporting large-scale renewable energy. Journal of Power Sources 144(1) 280–294.
- Khaligh, A., Z. Li. 2010. Battery, ultracapacitor, fuel cell, and hybrid energy storage systems for electric, hybrid electric, fuel cell, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles: State of the art. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 59(6) 2806–2814.
- La Petite Reine. 2013. Chiffres cl´es. URL http://www.lapetitereine.com/fr/ENT_reperes_ chiffres.php?id_niv1=2. Last accessed 12/6/2014.
- Larminie, J., J. Lowry. 2003. Electric Vehicle Technology Explained. Wiley, Chichester. URL http://ev-bg.com/wordpress1/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/electric-vehicletechnology-explained-2003-j-larminie.pdf
- Lee, D.Y., V.M. Thomas, M.A. Brown. 2013. Electric urban delivery trucks: Energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and cost-effectiveness. Environmental science & technology 47(14) 8022–8030.
- Lee, H., G. Lovellette. 2011. Will electric cars transform the us vehicle market? An analysis of the key determinants. Discussion paper #2011-08, Energy Technology Innovation Policy Discussion Paper Series, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School. URL http://mail.theeestory.com/files/Lee_Lovellette_Electric_Vehicles_ DP_2011_web.pdf
- Lipman, T.E., M.A. Delucchi. 2006. A retail and lifecycle cost analysis of hybrid electric vehicles. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 11(2) 115–132.
- Lukic, S.M., J. Cao, R.C. Bansal, F. Rodriguez, A. Emadi. 2008. Energy storage systems for automotive applications. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 55(6) 2258–2267.
- MacLean, H.L., L.B. Lave. 2003. Evaluating automobile fuel/propulsion system technologies. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 29(1) 1–69.
- Mak, H.Y., et al. 2013. Infrastructure planning for electric vehicles with battery swapping. Management Science 59(7) 1557–1575.
- May, J.W., M. Mattila. 2013. Plugging In: A Stakeholder Investment Guide for Public ElectricVehicle Charging Infrastructure Rocky Mountain Institute. URL http://www.rmi.org/ Content/Files/Plugging%20In%20-%20A%20Stakeholder%20Investment%20Guide.pdf
- McMorrin, F., R. Anderson, I. Featherstone, C. Watson. 2012. Plugged-in fleets: A guide to deploying electric vehicles in fleets. The Climate Group, Cenex, and Energy Saving Trust. URL http://www.theclimategroup.org/_assets/files/EV_report_final_hi-res.pdf.
- MDS Transmodal Limited. 2012. DG move – European Commission: Study on urban freight transport. In association with Centro di ricerca per il Trasporto e la Logistica (CTL). URLURL 04-urban-freight-transport.pdf
- Mercedes-Benz. 2012. Vito-e-cell brochure. URL http://www.mercedes-benz.fr/content/ media_library/france/vans/pdf_files/brochure_vito_ecell.object-SingleMEDIA.download.tmp/Brochure_Vito_ECELL_2012.pdf.
- Millner, A. 2010. Modeling lithium ion battery degradation in electric vehicles. 2010 IEEE Conference on Innovative Technologies for an Efficient and Reliable Electricity Supply (CITRES). IEEE, 349–356.
- Mitsubishi Motors. 2011. Mitsubishi Motors to launch new MINICAB-MiEV commercial electric vehicle in Japan. URL http://www.mitsubishi-motors.com/publish/pressrelease_en/ products/2011/news/detail0817.html.
- Mock, P., Z. Yang. 2014. Driving electrification: A tive policy for electric vehicles. The International global comparison of fiscal incenCouncil on Clean Transportation (ICCT). URL http://www.theicct.org/sites/default/files/publications/ICCT_EVfiscal-incentives_20140506.pdf
- 2010. Modec box van data. http://www.liberty-ecars.com/downloads/MDS80002-005-Boxvan-Data-Spec.pdf
- Mosquet, X., M. Devineni, T. Mezger, H. Zablit, A. Dinger, G. Sticher, M. Gerrits, M. Russo. 2011. Powering autos to 2020 – The era of the electric car? The Boston Consulting Group. URL http://www.bcg.com/documents/file80920.pdf
- Motiv Power Systems. 2014a. All-electric refuse truck documentation. URL http: //www.motivps.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/Motiv_AllElectricRefuseTruck_ 1sheet_06112014.pdf
- Motiv Power Systems. 2014b. Electrified E450 documentation. URL http://motivps.com/wpcontent/uploads/2014/06/Commercial-TruckShuttleBus_1sheet_022414.pdf
- Naberezhnykh, D., et al. 2012a. CLFQP EV CP freight strategy study – Annex A and B. Prepared for Central London FQP by Transport & Travel Research Ltd. URL http://www.triangle.eu.com/check-file-access/?file= 2012/06/CLFQP_EVCP_strategy_Annexes_draft-v1.0.doc
- Naberezhnykh, D., et al. 2012b. Electric vehicle charging points for freight vehicles in central London (Version – Draft 0.7). Prepared for Central London FQP by Transport & Travel Research Ltd, in partnership with TRL and Zero Carbon Futures. URL http://www.centrallondonfqp.org/app/download/12240926/ CLFQP_EVCP_strategy+report_Final+v1+0.pdf.
- Nathanail, E., M. Gogas, K. Papoutsis. 2013. Project STRAIGHTSOL deliverable D2.1 – Urban freight and urban-interurban interfaces: Best practices, implications and future needs. URL https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B7oEyNF3009lYVluNVN1RjJDWjA/edit?pli=1. Last accessed 14/6/2014.
- Neandross, E., P. Couch, T. Grimes. 2012. Zero-emission catenary hybrid truck market study. Gladstein, Neandross & Associates. URL http://www.transpowerusa.com/wordpress/wpcontent/uploads/2012/06/ZETECH_Market_Study_FINAL_2012_03_08.pdf
- Nesterova, N., H. Quak, S. Balm, I. Roche-Cerasi, T. Tretvik. 2013. Project FREVUE deliverable D1.3: State of the art of the electric freight vehicles implementation in city logistics. TNO and SINTEF. European Commission Seventh framework programme. URL http://frevue.eu/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/FREVUE-D1-3-Stateof-the-art-city-logistics-and-EV-final-.pdf
- New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. 2014. New York truck voucher incentive program – NYSEV-VIF all-electric vehicle eligibility list. [ vehicle cost versus conventional cost and the incentive ] https://truck-vip.ny.gov/NYSEV-VIF-vehicle-list.php
- Nie, Y.M., M. Ghamami. 2013. A corridor-centric approach to planning electric vehicle charging infrastructure. Transportation Research Part B: Methodological 57 172–190.
- 2014a. Competitive comparison. URL http://www.nissancommercialvehicles.com/ compare-competitors?next=vlp.features.nvcargo.compare.nv2500.button
- 2014b. e-NV200 brochure. URL http://www.nissan.co.uk/content/dam/services/gb/ brochure/e-NV200_van_Brochure.pdf
- 2014c. Nissan e-NT400. URL http://nissannews.com/fr-CA/nissan/canada/releases/ nissan-e-nv200-zero-emission-van-in-final-development-phase/photos/nissan-ent400. Last accessed 21/5/2014.
- 2014d. Nissan e-NV200 prices and specs. URL http://www.nissan.co.uk/ GB/en/vehicle/electric-vehicles/e-nv200/prices-and-equipment/prices-andspecifications.html
- NRC. 2014. Reducing the Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Phase Two: First Report. National Research Council, National Academies Press. 117 pages
- Offer, G.J., et al. 2010. Comparative analysis of battery electric, hydrogen fuel cell and hybrid vehicles in a future sustainable road transport system. Energy Policy 38(1) 24–29.
- Parish, R., W. Pitkanen. 2012. Demand assessment of first-mover hybrid and electric truck fleets. CALSTART. URL http://www.calstart.org/Libraries/Publications/Demand_ Assessment_of_First-Mover_Hybrid_and_Electric_Truck_Fleets.sflb.ashx. Last accessed 8/6/2014.
- 2014. Peugeot new Partner: Prices, equipment and technical specifications. URL http://business.peugeot.co.uk/Resources/Content/PDFs/peugeotpartner-prices-and-specifications.pdf
- Pitkanen, W., B. Van Amburg. 2012. ness case for e-trucks: Findings Best fleet uses, key challenges and the early busiand recommendations of the e-truck task force. CALSART. URL http://www.calstart.org/Libraries/E-Truck_Task_Force_ Documents/Best_Fleet_Uses_Key_Challenges_and_the_Early_Business_Case_for_ETrucks_Findings_and_Recommendations_of_the_E-Truck_Task_Force.sflb.ashx
- Plug In America. 2014. Plug-in vehicle tracker. URL http://www.pluginamerica.org/vehicles
- Pollet, B.G., I. Staffell, J.L. Shang. 2012. Current status of hybrid, battery and fuel cell electric vehicles: From electrochemistry to market prospects. Electrochimica Acta 84 235–249.
- Port of Los Angeles. 2014. Zero emission technologies. http://www.portoflosangeles.org/ environment/zero.asp
- Power Vehicle Innovation (PVI). 2014. Les chanes l, xl et xxl. URL http://www.pvi.fr/leschaines-l-xl-et-xxl,041.html
- Prud’homme, R., M. Koning. 2012. Electric vehicles: A tentative economic and environmental evaluation. Transport Policy 23 60–69. Renault. 2014a. Kangoo express & Z.E. brochure. http://www.renault.fr/e-brochure/ VU_ZE_F61/pdf/fullPDF.pdf
- 2014b. Kangoo Z.E. http://www.renault.fr/gamme-renault/vehiculeselectriques/kangoo-ze/kangoo-ze
- 2014c. Renault Kangoo van Z.E. http://www.renault.co.uk/cars/electricvehicles/kangoo/kangoo-van-ze/price.jsp. Last accessed 16/5/2014.
- Renault Trucks. 2011a. Le plus gros camion ´electrique du monde en exp´erimentation chez Carrefour. URL http://corporate.renault-trucks.com/fr/les-communiques/le-plusgros-camion-electrique-du-monde-en-experimentation-chez-carrefour.html.
- Renault Trucks. 2011b. Renault Maxity Electrique – L’utilitaire au sens propre. URL http://www. renault-trucks.fr/media/document/leaflet_maxity_electrique-fr.pdf
- Schmouker, O. 2012. Azure Dynamics en panne. Les Affaires URL http://www.lesaffaires. com/secteurs-d-activite/general/azure-dynamics-en-panne/542659
- Schultz, J. 2010. Better Place opens battery-swap station in Tokyo for 90-day taxi trial. The New York Times URL http://wheels.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/04/29/better-place-opensbattery-swap-station-in-tokyo-for-90-day-taxi-trial
- Shankleman, J. 2011. Could Modec crash kill off UK’s commercial electric vehicle market? The Guardian URL http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2011/mar/08/modec-crashcommercial-electric-vehicle.
- Shulock, C., et al. 2011. Vehicle task 1 report: Technology status. The International electrification policy study – Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT). URL http://www.theicct.org/sites/default/files/publications/ICCT_ VEPstudy_Mar2011_no1.pdf. Last accessed 4/6/2014.
- Sierzchula, W., S. Bakker, K. Maat, B. van Wee. 2012. The competitive environment of electric vehicles: An analysis of prototype and production models. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions 2 49–65.
- Smith Electric Vehicles. 2011a. Smith Edison spec sheet. URL http://www.smithelectric. com/wp-content/themes/barebones/pdfs/SmithEdisonSpecSheet_OUS_2011.pdf
- Smith Electric Vehicles. 2011b. Smith Newton outside of U.S spec sheet. URL http://www. smithelectric.com/wp-content/themes/barebones/pdfs/SmithNewtonSpecSheet_OUS_ 2011.pdf
- Smith Electric Vehicles. 2011c. Smith Newton United States spec sheet. http://www.smithelectric.com/wp-content/themes/barebones/pdfs/SmithNewtonUS_ SpecSheet_2011.pdf
- Smith Electric Vehicles. 2013. Smith Vehicles – models and configurations. http:// smithelectric.com/smith-vehicles/models-and-configurations
- Source London. 2013. Electric vehicle models. URL https://www.sourcelondon.net/ sites/default/files/Source%20electric%20vehicles%20March%202014.pdf
- Stewart, A. 2012. Ultra low emission vans study (final report). Element Energy, commissioned by the UK government’s Department for Transport (DfT). URL https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/ 4550/ultra-low-emission-vans-study.pdf
- Sweda, T.M., et al. 2014. Optimal recharging policies for electric vehicles. Working paper No.14-01, Department of Industrial Engineering and Management Sciences, Northwestern University. URL http://www.iems.northwestern.edu/docs/WP_14-01.pdf
- Taefi, T., et al. 2014. Comparative analysis of European examples of freight electric vehicles schemes. A systematic case study approach with examples from Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden and the UK. 4th International Conference on Dynamics in Logistics (LDIC 2014). Bremen, Germany. http://nrl.northumbria. ac.uk/15185/1/Bremen_final_paperShoter.pdf
- Taefi, T.T., et al. 2013. A framework to enhance the productivity of electric commercial vehicles of in urban freight transport. HamHelmut Schmidt University Hamburg. http://www2.mmu.ac.uk/media/mmuacuk/content/documents/carpe/2013-conference/papers/creative-engineering/Tessa%20T.%20Taefi.pdf
- Nine EV parcel, courier, and others in Germany interviewed said that the high price land lower volume of goods than an ICEV made them unprofitable without subsidies
- Tanguy, K.C., C. Gagn´e, M. Dubois. 2011. ´Etat de l’art en mati`ere de v´ehicules ´electriques et sur la technologie v2g. Rapport technique RT-LVSN-2011-01, Universit´e Laval, Qu´ebec, Canada. URL http://vision.gel.ulaval.ca/~cgagne/pubs/V2G-RT-LVSN-2011-01.pdf. Last ac cessed 5/5/2014.
- Taniguchi, E., S. Kawakatsu, H. Tsuji. 2000. New co-operative system using electric vans for urban freight transport. Sixth International Conference on Urban Transport and the Environment for the 21st Century. 201–210.
- Thiel, C., A. Perujo, A. Mercier. 2010. Cost and CO2 aspects of future vehicle options in Europe under new energy policy scenarios. Energy Policy 38(11) 7142–7151.
- Tipagornwong, C., M. Figliozzi. 2014. An analysis of the competitiveness of freight tricycle delivery services in urban areas. Paper presented at the 93rd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board. http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~maf/Journals/2014_An_Analysis_of_ the_Competitiveness_of_Freight_Tricycle_Delivery_Services_in_Urban_Areas.pdf
- Tomi´c, J., W. Kempton. 2007. Using fleets of electric-drive vehicles for grid support. Journal of Power Sources 168(2) 459–468.
- 2012. 2011 Mitsubishi MINICAB MiEV van. URL http://www.topspeed.com/trucks/ truck-reviews/mitsubishi/2011-mitsubishi-minicab-miev-van-ar131865.html#main
- Torregrossa, M. 2014. Mia Electric plac´e en liquidation judiciaire. http://www.avem.fr/ actualite-mia-electric-place-en-liquidation-judiciaire-4837.html
- Touati-Moungla, N., V. Jost. 2012. Combinatorial optimization for electric vehicles management. Journal of Energy and Power Engineering 6(5) 738–743.
- 2014. Port trucks. URL http://www.transpowerusa.com/wordpress/cleantransportation/zero-emissions-transportation-solutions/electric-trucks/ electric-port-trucks/. Last accessed 11/5/2014.
- 2013. Navistar sells RV business, drops Estar van as part of its turnaround plan. URL http://www.truckinginfo.com/channel/fuel-smarts/news/story/2013/05/ navistar-sells-recreational-vehicle-business.aspx
- TU Delft, HAW Hamburg, Lindholmen Science Park, ZERO, FDT. 2013. Comparative analysis of European examples of schemes for freight electric vehicles – Compilation report. E-Mobility NSR, Aalborg, Denmark. http://e-mobility-nsr.eu/fileadmin/user_upload/ downloads/info-pool/E-Mobility_-_Final_report_7.3.pdf
- Tuttle, D.P., K.M. Kockelman. 2012. Electrified vehicle technology trends, infrastructure implications, and cost comparisons. Journal of the Transportation Research Forum 51(1) 35–51. URL http://journals.oregondigital.org/trforum/article/view/2806/2411
- UK Government Office for Low Emission Vehicles (UK OLEV). 2014. Plug-in van grant vehicles list and eligibility guidance. URL https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/plugin-van-grant/plug-in-van-grant-vehicles-list-and-eligibility-guidance. Last accessed 5/6/2014.
- U.S. Department of Energy. 2010. The recovery act: Transforming America’s transportation sector – Batteries and electric vehicles. URL http://www.whitehouse.gov/files/documents/Battery-and-Electric-Vehicle-Report-FINAL.pdf
- U.S. Department of Energy. 2012a. All laws and incentives sorted by type. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center. URL http://www.afdc. energy.gov/laws/matrix/incentive
- U.S. Department of Energy. 2012b. Plug-in electric vehicle handbook for fleet managers. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). http://www.afdc.energy.gov/pdfs/pev_handbook.pdf
- U.S. Department of Energy. 2013a. Clean cities guide to alternative fuel and advanced medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). URL http://www.afdc.energy.gov/uploads/publication/ medium_heavy_duty_guide.pdf
- U.S. Department of Energy. 2013b. Vehicle technologies program – Smith Newton vehicle performance evaluation. URL http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy13osti/58108.pdf. Last accessed 13/6/2014.
- U.S. Department of Energy. 2014a. Availability of hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center. URL http://www. afdc.energy.gov/vehicles/electric_availability.html
- U.S. Department of Energy. 2014b. National clean fleets partner: Frito-lay. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. URL http://www1.eere.energy.gov/cleancities/fritolay.html. Last accessed 28/5/2014.
- U.S. Department of Energy. 2014c. Vehicle weight classes & categories. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center. URL http://www.afdc.energy.gov/ data/10380. Last accessed 12/7/2014.
- Valenta, M. 2013. Business case of electric vehicles for truck fleets. Ph.D. thesis, Argosy University, Denver, Colorado
- van Duin, J.H.R., H. Quak, J. Muuzuri. 2010. New challenges for urban consolidation centres: A case study in the Hague. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 2(3) 6177–6188.
- van Duin, J.H.R., L.A. Tavasszy, H.J. Quak. 2013. Towards e(lectric)-urban freight: first promising steps in the electric vehicle revolution. European Transport / Trasporti Europei 54(9) 1– 19. URL http://www.openstarts.units.it/dspace/bitstream/10077/8875/1/ET_2013_ 54_9%20van%20Duin%20et%20al..pdf
- van Rooijen, T., H. Quak. 2010. Local impacts of a new urban consolidation centre – The case of Binnenstadservice.nl. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 2(3) 5967–5979.
- Verlinde, S., C. Macharis, L. Milan, B. Kin. 2014. Does a mobile depot make urban deliveries faster, more sustainable and more economically viable: results of a pilot test in brussels. International Scientific Conference on Mobility and Transport, mobil.TUM 2014 . URL http://www.mobiltum.vt.bgu.tum.de/fileadmin/w00bqi/www/Session_Poster/Verlinde_et_al.pdf
- Vermie, A., M. Blokpoel. 2009. Rotterdam, city of electric transport. EVS24 International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium. World Electric Vehicle Journal Vol.3, Stavanger. URL https://www.google.ca/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc= s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CB4QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.evs24. org%2Fwevajournal%2Fphp%2Fdownload.php%3Ff%3Dvol3%2FWEVJ3-3930308.pdf&ei=t_ZU7iNFIWnyASpioKoBw&usg=AFQjCNGh5DRigcrqUtogJqgnrRLVr49B1Q&bvm=bv.72185853, d.aWw
- Vermie, T. 2002. ELCIDIS – electric vehicle city distribution final report. European Commission. URL http://www.elcidis.org/elcidisfinal.pdf. Last accessed 28/5/2014.
- Wang, H., Q. Huang, C. Zhang, A. Xia. 2010. A novel approach for the layout of electric vehicle charging station. IEEE 2010 International Conference on Apperceiving Computing and Intelligence Analysis (ICACIA). IEEE, Chengdu, China, 64–70.
- Woody, T. 2012. Fedex delivers on green goals with electric trucks. Forbes URL http://www.forbes.com/sites/toddwoody/2012/05/23/fedex-delivers-on-greengoals-with-electric-trucks
- Wu, H.H., A. Gilchrist, K. Sealy, P. Israelsen, J. Muhs. 2011. A review on inductive charging for electric vehicles. 2011 IEEE International Electric Machines Drives Conference (IEMDC). IEEE, 143–147.
- Xu, H., S. Miao, C. Zhang, D. Shi. 2013. Optimal placement of charging infrastructures for largescale integration of pure electric vehicles into grid. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems 53 159–165.
- Yılmaz, M., P.T. Krein. 2013. Review of battery charger topologies, charging power levels, and infrastructure for plug-in electric and hybrid vehicles. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics 28(5) 2151–2169.
- 2014. Specs. URL http://zerotruck.com/our-fleet/. Last accessed 16/5/2014.
- Zhang, S.S. 2006. The effect of the charging protocol on the cycle life of a li-ion battery. Journal of Power Sources 161(2) 1385–1391.