Utility scale energy storage batteries limited by materials and few locations for pumped hydro, compressed air

Barnhart 2013 fig 1

Fig. 1 Energy storage technologies require varying amounts of energy for manufacturing and for their production. (A) Cradle-to-gate primary embodied energy per unit of electrical energy storage capacity, ?gate, for storage technologies. (B) Levelized embodied energy required to build out grid-scale energy storage. Colored lines indicate the levelized embodied energy costs for storage technologies for a 30 years period as a function of capacity.

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