Utility scale energy storage batteries limited by materials and few locations for pumped hydro, compressed air

Barnhart 2013 fig 3

Fig. 3 Energy storage technologies depend on the availability of critical materials and geologic resources. Lithospheric abundance of critical elements loosely correlates with resource production (A), price (B) and embodied energy (C). The blue lines represent a simple linear regression with grey envelopes outlining a confidence interval of 0.95

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