Minerals: Natural gas from Ugo Bardi’s “Extracted”

Net Energy Cliff with oil coal solar tarsands oil shale

The average EROEI required to run industrial society as we know it is around 8 to 10. Prieto and Hall (2013) found the EROI of solar to be 2.4 in “Spain’s Photovoltaic Revolution. The Energy Return on Investment” and Ferroni and Hopkirk in 2016 to be NEGATIVE .85 in journal “Energy Policy” on May 8

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